Approximately 9.1 million people live in Tokyo, the capital of Japan.
Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period.
Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8 and the G20—and is considered a great power.
The country has the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity.
Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world.
In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital from Nara to Nagaoka-kyō, then to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) in 794.
The message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. Another form Wei (委) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty.
The English word Japan possibly derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本.
After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma—and the Empire of Japan was established.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism.The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang.